What are critical periods during pregnancy quizlet?

What effect does malnutrition during critical periods of development in pregnancy have on the fetus?

Lack of adequate nutrition of good quality and quantity during pregnancy can cause health problems for both the mother and her fetus. Maternal malnutrition increases the risk of gestational anemia, hypertension, miscarriages and fetal deaths during pregnancy, pre-term delivery and maternal mortality.

Which is the most critical period for development in which teratogens affect the fetus quizlet?

The embryonic period, during which organogenesis takes place, occurs between implantation at around 14 days to around 60 days postconception. This is usually the most sensitive period to teratogenesis when exposure to a teratogenic agent has the greatest likelihood of producing a malformation.

Which period of pregnancy is the most critical time for fetal development?

The First Trimester: Fetal Development. The most dramatic changes and development happen during the first trimester. During the first eight weeks, a fetus is called an embryo.

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Which nutrients are needed in the greatest amounts during pregnancy?

Folic acid, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin C, and vitamin D (in addition to energy and protein), are the main micronutrients for which the requirement physiologically increases during pregnancy and lactation.

What is the critical period in pregnancy?

In general, major defects of the body and internal organs are more likely to occur between 3 to 12 embryo / fetal weeks. This is the same as 5 to 14 gestational weeks (weeks since the first day of your last period). This is also referred to as the first trimester.

What are the most likely effects of malnutrition during critical periods of pregnancy?

Maternal malnutrition increases the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes including obstructed labour, premature or low-birth-weight babies and postpartum haemorrhage. Severe anaemia during pregnancy is linked to increased mortality at labour. Low-birth-weight is a significant contributor to infant mortality.

What birth defects can teratogens cause?

During this time, teratogens can cause neural tube defects such as spina bifida. Some organs are sensitive to teratogens during the whole pregnancy. This includes the baby’s brain and spinal cord. Alcohol affects the brain and spinal cord, so it can cause harm at any time during pregnancy.

What are some teratogens that affect the fetus?

Teratogenic agents include infectious agents (rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella, herpes simplex, toxoplasma, syphilis, etc.); physical agents (ionizing agents, hyperthermia); maternal health factors (diabetes, maternal PKU); environmental chemicals (organic mercury compounds, polychlorinated biphenyl or PCB, …

What are 4 teratogens?

Teratogens are classified into four types: physical agents, metabolic conditions, infection, and finally, drugs and chemicals. The word teratogen originates from the Greek word for monster, teratos.

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How do I know my baby is healthy in the womb?

Five common signs of a healthy pregnancy

  • 01/6​Weight gain during pregnancy. Usually expecting mums gain around 12-15 kilos when they are pregnant. …
  • 02/6Common signs of a healthy pregnancy. …
  • 03/6​Movement. …
  • 04/6​Normal growth. …
  • 05/6Heartbeat. …
  • 06/6​Position of the baby at the time of pre-labour.

What is the hardest trimester of pregnancy?

The first trimester of pregnancy can often be the hardest. Pregnancy hormones, extreme fatigue, nausea and vomiting, tender breasts, and perpetually needing to wee make life growing a human no easy feat.

How do you know if your fetus is developing normally?

An ultrasound is usually done for all pregnant women at 20 weeks. During this ultrasound, the doctor will make sure that the placenta is healthy and attached normally and that your baby is growing properly. You can see the baby’s heartbeat and movement of its body, arms, and legs on the ultrasound.